Parkview CHURCH of CHRIST

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LUKE – INTRODUCTION


I. Author and Date of the Book

A. Luke – The “Beloved” Physician” (Col. 4:14)

1. Companion and worker with Paul (2 Tim. 4:11, Philm. 24)

2. Comparison of Luke with Acts (Lk. 1:1-4, Acts 1:1-3)

a. The “we” sections in Acts (Acts 16:10-11, 20:5ff., 21:1ff.)

B. Date – Most likely written while Luke was in Caesarea during Paul’s imprisonment: A.D. 58 (Acts 24:27, 25:13,27:1).  Before the writing of Acts, no later that A.D. 63.


II. Purpose of the Book: To present the perfect humanity of Christ.  An appeal especially to the Greeks.

A. the human need of PRAYER

1. Exemplified in Jesus’ life: 3:21 – His baptism, 5:16 – withdrawing to desert, 6:12 – all night in the mountain before choosing apostles, 9:18 – apart from disciples, 9:29- His transfiguration, 11:1 – when He teaches about prayer, 22:32 – intercessory prayer for Peter, 22:41 – when He suffers before His death on the cross.

a. Others in prayer: 1:10 – multitude of people, 2:37-38 – Anna.

2. Emphasized by His teaching (11:2-5, 18:1-8, 22:40)  


B. Jesus sympathetic with POVERTY (2:24, cf. Lev. 12:8; Luke 4:18; 14:13, 21; 16:19-31).  Being poor does not keep us from God.


C. Jesus sympathetic with OUTCASTS in the context of being SINNERS (4:29, 3:12-13, 7:29, 7:37, 15:1-2, 18:13, 23:43, 19:10)


D. Jesus sympathetic with PARENTS – “only child” (7:11-17 – Widow of Nain, 8:42 – Jairus daughter (cf. Mk. 5:22-23, Matt. 9:18), 9:38 – Man’s son with unclean spirit (cf. Matt. 17:14-18, Mk. 9:17).


E. Jesus’ GENEALOGY traced back to Adam in contrast to Abraham in Matthew’s account (3:23-28, Matt.1:2ff.)

1. “All” emphasized as benefiting from Christ, not just the Jews (1:79, 2:10, 29-32, 3:6)


III. Other Features of Luke’s Gospel

A. At least 60 incidents and events exclusive to Luke (approximately 43 of them have to do with Jesus’s birth and early childhood, and later Judean and Perean Ministry)

1. The only Gospel to give information concerning growth from childhood to manhood (2:51-52, cf. 2:42, 3:23)

2. Emphasizes events of later Judean and Perean Ministry (9:51-19:28): “Face set to go to Jerusalem” (9:51, 13:22, 17:11, 18:31, 19:11, 28, 37).  Last six months of life.

B. The Holy Spirit emphasized (1:15, 41, 67; 2:25-27; 4:1, 14, 18; 11:13; 24:49)


C. Women are mentioned in Luke more than any of the other Gospels.

(Chapters 1-2 – Elizabeth, Mary and Anna, 4:24- many widows, 7:11-17- widow of Nain, 7:37, 50 – sinful woman, 10:38-41-Mary and Martha, 13:10-17 – sick woman, 15:8 – woman and lost coin, 18:1-8 – persistent woman, 23:28 – weeping daughters of Jerusalem)


D. 14 parables exclusively found in Luke:

1. Two debtors (7:41-43)

2. Good Samaritan (10:25-37)

3. Friend at midnight -prayer (11:5-8)

4. Rich fool (12:16-21)

5. Barren fig tree (13:6-9)

6. Seeking chief seats at feast (14:7-14)

7. The slighted feast (14:15-24)

8. The lost things (sheep, coin, son) (15:3-37)

9. The unjust steward (16:1-13)

10. The rich man and Lazarus (16:19-31)

11. Unprofitable servants (17:5-10)

12. Persistent widow (18:1-8)

13. Boastful Pharisee – humble publican (18:9-14)

14. The pounds (19:11-27)


IV. Book Follows Four Main Divisions:

 

A. Early childhood and manhood (1:1-4:13)


B. Journeys in Galilee (4:14 – 9:50)


C. Journey to Jerusalem (9:51-19:44)


D. Death and triumph through resurrection (19:25-24:53)